Monday, June 22, 2009

Valuable and Useful Oil...

Walking down the supermarket aisles we see Olive oils...Canola oils...Sunflower oils...and host of other varieties that come in shapely glass bottles with fancy labels that make them look more like an expensive wine than a vegetable oil.  Their neighbors are oils that while they may seem "less fancy" in their durable and yet inexpensive my estimation...they are equally beautiful as the light passes through them.

A lifetime of pushing our shopping carts by a seemingly endless supply of these oils...available at a relatively low price...could make them seem like an expendable commodity.  As if they will always be there for us to purchase and use liberally.  If it is our lot to go through times of scarcity...where oil has gone up in price until the average person cannot purchase it...or circumstances have made it no longer available...we may find as Joni Mitchell sang so wisely..."Don't it always seem to go...that we don't know what we've got till it's gone"!

F. Enzio Busche tells of a time in his life when vegetable oil was very valuable...

"Frequently I am asked, “What were the most valuable items in the days of starvation in Germany?...For what we needed, the food item we relied on most was vegetable oil. With a bottle of vegetable oil, one could acquire nearly every other desirable item. It had such value that with a quart of vegetable oil one could probably trade for three bushels of apples or three hundred pounds of potatoes. Vegetable oil has a high calorie content, is easy to transport, and in cooking can give a tasty flavor to all kinds of food items that one would not normally consider as food—wild flowers, wild plants, and roots from shrubs and trees. For me and my family, a high-quality vegetable oil has the highest priority in our food storage, both in times of daily use and for emergency usage. When vegetable oil is well-packed and stored appropriately, it has a long storage life without the necessity of refrigeration. We found ours to be in very good condition after twenty years of storage, but circumstances may vary in different countries and with different supplies."(F. Enzio Busche, “How Beautiful to Live in These Times and Be Prepared!,” Ensign, Jun 1982, 16)

Uses of Oil

Barter value...nutritional value...ease of transport...and taste is about all we could ask of a food item in a time of scarcity.  As a food...vegetable oil has many uses...  

Wikipedia itemizes the food value this way...

"Many vegetable oils are consumed directly, or used directly as ingredients in food - a role that they share with some animal fats, including butter and ghee. The oils serve a number of purposes in this role:

  • Shortening - to give pastry a crumbly texture .
  • Texture - oils can serve to make other ingredients stick together less.
  • Flavor - while less-flavorful oils command premium prices, oils such as olive oil or almond oil may be chosen specifically for the flavor they impart.
  • Flavor base - oils can also "carry" flavors of other ingredients, since many flavors are present in chemicals that are soluble in oil.

Secondly, oils can be heated, and used to cook other foods. Oils that are suitable for this purpose must have a high flash point. Such oils include the major cooking oils - canolasunflowersafflowerpeanut etc. Some oils, including rice bran oil, are particularly valued in Asian cultures for high temperature cooking, because of their unusually high flash point."

There are also many other non-food uses of vegetable oil that you may not have considered that can make it a valuable item to have around...especially during hard times.  By no means is this a complete list...but here some that I could think of or find...

1.  Lamps
2.  Lotions.  You could even make your own essential oils from herbs and give it a scent.  Many oils are quite healing applied directly to your skin without processing.
4.  Soap 
8.  Priesthood blessings (olive oil)

The Church's Counsel

Here are a few quotes cut and pasted from church publications...

In light of this information...we should look for ways to be prepared to have oil on hand.

Healthiest Oils

Some oils are more healthy than others.  The health conscious should be wary of using some oils.  There is some conflicting information as to which is best. Researching the food value of coconut oil for example will leave you bewildered as to whom is correct as some say it is the most unhealthy oil...and others say it is the healthiest!!  I encourage you to research the oils and make your own decision.

Storing Oil

Enzio mentioned that his family had success storing vegetable oil for 20+ years that was still good after that time.  If you were to look around for the "experts" to tell you how long you can store an oil will find that it depends on the kind of oil you want to you plan on storing it...and the point of view of the "expert". 

For example...some would say that olive oil has a shelf life of a year or two...others for 3-4 years...while others would say that it can be stored indefinitely!  I'm not really sure who is right you can find some advice on how to extend the shelf life of your oils.

While the information given by experts regarding shelf lives may vary...they all seem to agree that fresh is better tasting...and better for you.  Even a small amount of rancid oil can make your food taste really bad...and even make you quite sick.

Make Your Own Oil

Have you considered that it could be possible to make your own oil?  If you were to have the tools and skill to make your own oil you would have...

1.  the freshest and therefore healthiest oils possible.
2.  the possibility of having oil still available to your family...even after your oil storage is expended by a "sustained emergency".
3.  the ability to make oils out of a variety of plants you may have never considered...that may not be commercially available.
4.  increased self reliance!

Ezra Taft Benson stated...

The storing of any food or supply brings a level of self reliance and peace of mind that will last only as long as the food or supply does!  Having the ability to produce your own food and supplies brings the possessor of such knowledge into the realm of true self reliance.

It reminds me of that old saying "Give a man a fish and feed him for a day...or teach him how to fish and feed him for a lifetime".  I could easily reword it to say "The store gives a man some oil and feeds him till it's gone...or he could learn to make his own oil and feed himself for a lifetime!"

The prophets have long spoken the phrase "Home production and storage".  While just simply storing may be an "easier" path...learning to produce what you need could prove "invaluable".

So How is Vegetable Oil Made?

Five common methods are used to extract oil:

a) Water assisted. Here the finely ground oilseed is either boiled in water and the oil that floats to the surface is skimmed off or ground kernels are mixed with water and squeezed and mixed by hand to release the oil.
b) Manual pressing. Here oilseeds, usually pre-ground, are pressed in manual screw presses. A typical press is shown in diagram 1.
c) Expelling. An expeller consists of a motor driven screw turning in a perforated cage. The screw pushes the material against a small outlet, the "choke". Great pressure is exerted on the oilseed fed through the machine to extract the oil. Expelling is a continuous method unlike the previous two batch systems.
d) Ghanis. A ghani consists of a large pestle and mortar rotated either by animal power or by a motor. Seed is fed slowly into the mortar and the pressure exerted by the pestle breaks the cells and releases the oil. Ghani technology is mainly restricted to the Indian sub-continent.
e) Solvent extraction. Oils from seeds or the cake remaining from expelling is extracted with solvents and the oil is recovered after distilling off the solvent under vacuum.
My own belief is that the second one on the list...letter "b" is the best for preparedness.  I will share more on why later.

Here is a great article on how to process oil seed.  This is one that I will print out to have as a reference.  

Here is yet another on processing oil seed on a small scale.

Which Seeds and Nuts Are Used For Oil?

It really is remarkable how many seeds and nuts can be processed for their valuable oil.  Wikipedia has a wonderful list of various vegetable oils and their uses.  On that list you will find many seeds and nuts that you are probably currently tossing in the trash.  Seeds that if you simply set them aside to dry could be pressing them for their oils.  

You will also see some on the list that can be gathered from wild sources.  I first started to research this when I found out how high the oil content is in thistle seed and how it can be pressed for it's valuable oil.  This would be a great list to print off a hard copy have on hand to remember what seeds you can use and their applications.

Acorns For Cooking Oil

You may already know that I believe that acorns are one of the most underutilized food cropsavailable in America and much of the world for that matter.  There is information out there on how to use the acorns as a meal...but really not a lot of information on how they can be used for their oil.  This could lead one to believe that it must not be a feasible option if "everyone isn't doing it"...and yet the information that is available on acorn oil makes it out to be a great oil!

David A. Bainbridge has done some comprehensive studies regarding acorn usage.  In his short paper available online he writes...

"Acorns can also be used to make acorn oil by boiling, crushing, or pressing. Acorn oil has been used as a cooking oil in Algeria and Morocco (Loudon, 1844; Hedrick, 1919; Smith, 1950). It was used by the Indians of the eastern U.S. for cooking and as a salve for burns and injuries (Michaux, 1810; Smith, 1950). Some varieties contain more than 30 percent oil, equal or greater than the best oil olives ( Wolf, 1945; Ofcarcik et al., 1971). The quality and flavor of the oil is comparable to olive oil (Wolf, 1945; Smith, 1950; Bainbridge, 1985a). Table 4 presents further information on acorn oil."

A study by the American Chemists Society said that acorn oil could "satisfactorily be used for edible purposes".

Isn't that remarkable!  Those little acorns that fill green waste bins to overflowing can be made into an oil that has a "quality and flavor..comparable to olive oil"!!  With the long term storage capacity of is conceivable that a person could store enough acorns to eat as a meal...or to produce whatever oil you would need for the season or more.

Although none of the sources I found indicated if it was necessary to leach the acorns first...I communicated with Green Deane who told me that "You get a better tasting oil if you leach it first".

In hard times...acorns may be a primary source of oil for those who can make it.  It is my intention even the acorns start falling this make it the primary source of oil for my family.

Choosing a Method of Oil Extraction

The best (in my opinion) oil expeller will be one that is easily transportable...does not require electricity in case there is fairly priced...doesn't wear out or require a lot of cleaning...and can expel a wide variety of seeds and nuts.

From my research...the one that fits best into all of these criteria is the Piteba Oil Press.

See the press in action in these videos....

Group Order

The cost of olive oil right now is roughly $10 a liter.

The cost of the Piteba oil expeller is approximately $140 shipped.  Which is an AWESOME price!!  Especially when you compare it with some of the more complicated motorized versions that cost thousands of dollars.

Make 14 liters of oil that you would have purchased and used anyways...and you will have recouped your expense...and the rest is gravy!  If due to crop failure...a drastic devaluation of our currency...breakdown of shipping...war...etc...the price of vegetable oil shoots through the may be able to recoup the cost with just one liter made! 

It is interesting that we could go to the store and easily pick up $140 worth of groceries that disappear quickly from our pantries and think nothing of it.  And here $140 may sound like a lot of money for a tool...and yet this is a means to make an unlimited amount of food!  As I look at it...I am buying the cornucopia of cooking oil...lotion...fuel...medicine...etc...for a small price.

There is a price break if at least 4 are ordered.  The owner told me that the price break comes on shipping when he can send presses together.  Which would make the final price less than $140.  There is a chance that our government will want to tax the items coming in from the Netherlands where they are made.  I have been unable to confirm or deny how much that tax would be or if it even will happen...but don't put it past our government to have ways to gouge imports.  The final cost should be less than the $140.  Plan on paying that amount...but be pleasantly surprised if I can refund you some money!

If you would like to purchase one...please contact me at and let me know how many you would like and your contact info.  I have done many group orders in the past...and my experience has been that a lot of people keep trickling in wanting to order up until the last second.  The last time I did an order like this I expected to order maybe 10 or so cookstoves...and we ended up with an order of 70+ stoves!  This happens as families email families and it takes a while for the word to get around.

Here is how it will work.  I will keep a list of people and their orders...when we have at least 4 people ordering...I will contact you to let you and request that you send me $140.  I will gauge if orders are still coming in and make the order when money has been collected by all interested later than Friday July 31st.  Then I will pay for the group purchase via paypal.  The presses will be mailed to my address...I will tell you when they arrive...and then we will arrange how you will pick it up or perhaps have me mail it to you.  

As a bonus to whomever buys a press....I will invite you to my home this fall...and do a free workshop on how to process acorns for food and we will try our hands at making some acorn oil!  Then we will make some food out of the product we make!  YUM!  

Heck!  Just the class will be worth the cost of the press!

In closing...almost inevitably I am asked after I do a group order...if I will be doing it again.  The answer is "No".  In this case I just plan on having one I don't plan on organizing another order for a group.  If you want an oil may not want to let this chance pass you by.

Monday, June 15, 2009

Indian Meal Moths...

You flip on the switch to the pantry...and a few tiny light brown moths take to flight. When they land...your little pantry friend probably looks just like the photo to the right. The fact that you see this moth flying around means that with almost 100% certainty...that you have an infestation of Indian Meal Moths in some of your food.

As a youth...I loved club crackers. My mother was kind enough to feed my habit and so I would sit down and plow through a whole package in one sitting. One day as I sat back engrossed in an episode of Star Trek...I munched my way through a sleeve of club crackers. I went to lift one of the final crackers to my mouth...and caught a glimpse of something moving across the cracker. It was an Indian Meal Moth caterpillar!! I looked in the empty cracker bag and found that the caterpillar had lots of friends! Who knows how many I had eaten! It took a long time until I would even consider eating a club cracker again...and to this day club crackers kind of gross me out.

Other signs that you may have an infestation...other than them flying around...or having them on a cracker...are tiny holes in your packaging to your food products...tiny dust-like particles of food from their chowing down...and a web material that they spin.

You can expect to find them in most any kind of food...because they really eat most anything. food...herbs...etc...etc...they will eat it.

There are lots of people handing out advice on how to get rid of these "pantry moths" on Internet. Some are trying to sell their sticky lures or other spraying gadgets. Others are giving out good sound advice.

Here is mine...born out of experience. Think of these things like having a lice breakout. No halfhearted effort will suffice. Otherwise they will spring right back. They lay 400 or so eggs over a two or three week period. They can easily have six generations in a year!! That is a lot of offspring. These eggs can be laid in all kinds of cracks and crevices...unseen to the naked eye. They should not be expected to disappear without taking drastic measures.

Here are the steps that I would take and recommend...

1. Good news! It's spring cleaning time! Take EVERYTHING out of the pantry. Seriously...everything...cans included. If you feel tempted to leave something in...just remember that they may have laid their eggs on the things you want to leave in...and you may have to do the whole process over again!

2. Donate or freeze what you take out. Donate questionable items or items you don't mind tossing to someone who has chickens! What you want to keep...put in the freezer for a day or so to kill any potential eggs on or in the product.

3. Use a vacuum and thoroughly suck up every crack and crevice...starting at the top and working down.

4. Thoroughly wash the pantry shelves down with soap and water. Some even go a step beyond this and spray some sort of a pesticide out too...just to make sure.

5. Make sure everything is dry...and then stock your shelves again.

As far as avoiding them in the future...

1. Put your open boxes into sealable mason jars.

2. Rotate your food storage.

3. Some would say to avoid bulk food bins that they say can be carriers of the eggs.

4. Refrigerate or freeze items that are susceptible to infestation.

5. Keep the pantry clean.

6. If you see a moth again...quickly try to find the culprit product and get rid of it quickly and hope you don't have to repeat this whole process again!!

The other option of course is just to eat them! While I am not planning on doing this anytime soon...consuming the moths at any stage is harmless...and more than likely a good source of protein! That is...if you can turn off that part of your brain that says how gross it is to eat bugs!

Sunday, June 14, 2009

Mexicola Avocado Trees...

Avocados are yummy...or at least that is what the experts say! And my tongue is an expert. Cut up in salads...made into fresh guacamole...YES PLEASE!!! Other than their paramount yumminess...they are also incredibly good for you.

Enough times buying avocados for top dollar at the store...and I decided that I wanted to see if it was possible to grow them myself. I spoke with a horticulturist friend of mine...whose property looks like a garden of Eden...who told me about his avocado tree experience. When his children were young he planted a "Mexicola" avocado tree. He said "The skins were so thin and they were so buttery and nutty in flavor that my children would pluck them from the tree and eat them skin and all!" He told me in no uncertain terms that the Mexicola is the best suited for the Sacramento Valley's climate.

The California Rare Fruit Growers Association states that "Avocados do well in the mild-winter areas of California, Florida and Hawaii." This area does have mild winters...but sometimes our winters can get pretty frosty...which can quickly kill an avocado tree. Some people avoid the frost entirely by keeping them in a pot and bring them indoors when it gets cold. While that may sounds like a chore...and one will severely limit their fruit production keeping it in a pot. The reason that the Mexicola is so suited to the Sacramento region is because they are the most cold hardy of the avocados...down to 18 degrees!

Apart from the cold issue...Avocados are also are susceptible to burning from the sun...and do best with proper fertilization. See the link above for more information on the care of the tree. They are a finicky tree to take care of in the early years...but as they get more established...they are stronger and require less maintenance.

La Vernes Nursery supplies Capital Nursery with their Avocado's. They offer 3 Mexicola varieties. The Mexicola Grande...the Mexicola...and the Stuart Mexicola. The full grown tree sizes are in that order...the Grande the tallest...then Stuart the Smallest. Their fruit size and qualities are different...but all are equally cold hardy.

At Capital Nursery you can expect to pay $50 for one of these tree's. You could potentially get Lowe's or another like store to special order what you want. They have done that for me before and I paid considerably less...and from the same supplier!

It is
possible to grow one from seed...but I would recommend just buying the tree that has been grafted onto superior rootstock...if fruit production is your goal.

So...if you have a nice sunny space
to plant...can make the time to care for a tree...and love avocado' may want to consider planting a Mexicola!

Wednesday, June 10, 2009

A Really Long but Important Article on Seed...

Wondrous Seed

Have you ever stood under a Giant Sequoia? If you never is a remarkable experience. No matter how many times I see them in person I am always amazed at how enormous they are. The feeling I get is as if I am standing at the foot of a Brontosaurus or some other larger than life dinosaur. While not as old as the is amazing to think that one of those tree's has been recorded as being as much as 3,500 years old! That antedates the ministry of our Savior!

Not only are they old...they are tall. The tallest of these trees is named "General Sherman" and now towers some 274.9 feet! To get the whole tree into the viewfinder of a camera is a feat. I can remember myself and a group of Japanese tourists backing up away from the General....further and further...unable to photograph anything more than the trunk...and then finally turning and walking a good football fields length from the tree before we could photograph the whole tree!

What baffles the mind is that these giants are borne out of the growth that comes from a tiny...seemingly insignificant fleck of a seed. The seed is held inside of a scale-like seed case...and it is the size of a pinhead!...and yet...bundled up in that minuscule seed lies all of the genetic information and life required to give us one of the absolute wonders of nature.

Seeds truly are a marvel. They have the ability to lie long-term hibernating bears...awaiting the conditions that will make it possible for them to survive. We count on them to lie dormant until we "wake them up" at a time we choose...when we go to plant our gardens. As we prepare our garden beds to plant our precious saved seeds...and run our rakes back and forth disturbing the soil we may also wake up potentially unwelcome dormant weed they find their way to the surface and find the sun...moisture...and air that they also need to begin their lives.

As I pour my seed into the palm of my hand out of a seed packet...I am amazed at all of the sizes and shapes...and colors...some with swirling tails...spots...or wings. Many are as much a wonder as the plant they produce. In my minds eye I romanticize a heavenly art studio...where an artist sits at an art desk busily designing seeds and the plants they will produce.

The Creator and Seed

While that may or may not be how they are designed...we do know that they exist by the command of the Creator. The opening chapter of the Old Testament records...

Gen. 1: 11-12, 29

11 "And God said, Let the earth bring forth grass, the herb yielding seed, and the fruit tree yielding fruit after his kind, whose seed is in itself, upon the earth: and it was so.

12 And the earth brought forth grass, and herb yielding seed after his kind, and the tree yielding fruit, whose seed was in itself, after his kind: and God saw that it was good.

29 ¶ And God said, Behold, I have given you every herb bearing seed, which is upon the face of all the earth, and every tree, in the which is the fruit of a tree yielding seed; to you it shall be for meat."

So...the Creator made seeds to produce after their own kind....which means that a seed taken from the mother plant will produce a plant like the mother plant. Are you aware that there are basically two types of seeds on the market nowadays? Those that are made as God made produce after their own kind...called "open pollinated" seeds...or those that have been artificially hybridized by man in an attempt to increase some sort of desirable trait...such as disease resistance...yield...etc.

Open pollinated seeds have the ability...with produce a seed that can be saved from generation to generation. The best of these are generally given an "heirloom" status which basically means that they are of good enough quality to have been kept for a long time. The hybrid plants will produce a seed that is not reliable to grow a plant like the mother plant...and if it grows a plant at all it will be quite inferior to the mother plant.

For preparedness...I am a huge advocate of using only open pollinated/heirloom variety seeds. While I can concede that one would be hard pressed to find a variety of open pollinated corn that can compete with the sweetness of a hybrid variety...and that there may be some hybrid types that are desirable for their various traits...I say emphatically...THERE IS NO LONG TERM SELF RELIANCE TO BE HAD IN HYBRID SEED!!! With hybrid are at the mercy of the seed supplier to give you new seed every season! What if they close down their business.? What if you have no way to get the seed delivered? What if the supply runs out...or the price goes so high you can't afford it? Without the seed supplier...with hybrid seeds you have one plant to grow and then you are done. That will work fine if your time of disaster is only one season...but what if it is longer?!

I agree with Alma who said...

Alma 32:31 "And now, behold, are ye sure that this is a good seed? I say unto you, Yea; for every seed bringeth forth unto its own likeness."

The Book of Mormon and Seed

Ezra Taft Benson said in "The Book of Mormon- Keystone of Our Religion"

"Each of the major writers of the Book of Mormon testified that he wrote for future generations. Nephi said: “The Lord God promised unto me that these things which I write shall be kept and preserved, and handed down unto my seed, from generation to generation” (2 Ne. 25:21). His brother Jacob, who succeeded him, wrote similar words: “For [Nephi] said that the history of his people should be engraven upon his other plates, and that I should preserve these plates and hand them down unto my seed, from generation to generation” (Jacob 1:3). Enos and Jarom both indicated that they too were writing not for their own peoples but for future generations (see Enos 1:15–16, Jarom 1:2).

Mormon himself said, “Yea, I speak unto you, ye remnant of the house of Israel” (Morm. 7:1). And Moroni, the last of the inspired writers, actually saw our day and time. “Behold,” he said, “the Lord hath shown unto me great and marvelous things concerning that which must shortly come, at that day when these things shall come forth among you.

“Behold, I speak unto you as if ye were present, and yet ye are not. But behold, Jesus Christ hath shown you unto me, and I know your doing” (Morm. 8:34–35).

If they saw our day and chose those things which would be of greatest worth to us, is not that how we should study the Book of Mormon? We should constantly ask ourselves, “Why did the Lord inspire Mormon (or Moroni or Alma) to include that in his record? What lesson can I learn from that to help me live in this day and age?”"

There is no fluff in the Book of Mormon. Prophets that saw our day...and events in our future put those things in it...that would be of use for us in OUR DAY.

So what does the Book of Mormon teach about seed that we should know for our day?

First I will say that the word "seed" is probably the most often used piece of agriculture in all of the scriptures. A bulk of the time it is used as a metaphor for ones posterity. The rest of the time "Seed" seems to be used in the context of a literal seed that one would put in the soil to grow a plant.

Here are most of the Book of Mormon uses of the word "seed" in that context that I could find...

The following three scriptures are from Lehi's families journey...

1 Nephi 8:1 And it came to pass that we had gathered together all manner of seeds of every kind, both of grain of every kind, and also of the seeds of fruit of every kind.

1 Nephi 16:11 And it came to pass that we did gather together whatsoever things we should carry into the wilderness, and all the remainder of our provisions which the Lord had given unto us; and we did take seed of every kind that we might carry into the wilderness.

1 Nephi 18:6 And it came to pass that on the morrow, after we had prepared all things, much fruits and meat from the wilderness, and honey in abundance, and provisions according to that which the Lord had commanded us, we did go down into the ship, with all our loading and our seeds, and whatsoever thing we had brought with us, every one according to his age; wherefore, we did all go down into the ship, with our wives and our children.

After they arrived in the promised land the record states...

1 Nephi 18:24 And it came to pass that we did begin to till the earth, and we began to plant seeds; yea, we did put all our seeds into the earth, which we had brought from the land of Jerusalem. And it came to pass that they did grow exceedingly; wherefore, we were blessed in abundance.

To summarize what is a family that was commanded by God to gather provisions for a journey and then to flee a wicked homeland and to make their way through a wilderness to live on a ship...shut out from the outside world for what could have been a year or so based upon the dates in the lower corners of the pages...which meant that for a time they would survive on only their stored provisions...after which the circumstances would allow for them to be able to till the earth and plant all of their seeds to have food to eat after their stored provisions had been depleted.

Nephi wants us to know that they did not casually grab a few seeds...but instead stored "seeds of every kind". He tells us this 4 times! If there was a chance that you could one day be surviving on what you could produce in a garden like the Lehites...would you store a few seeds...or would you store "seeds of every kind"?! I would store the latter...and do. I want to make sure that I have a variety of plants that could grow in different seasons and have a multitude of uses.

We were told by Marion G. Romney in General Conference April 1975 that "We will see the day when we will live on what we produce." In light of that prophecy that was repeated in General Conference at least another 2 times...once by Victor L. Brown and another time by J. Richard seems prudent to store seeds of every kind in preparation for a day when we may have to live on what we can grow.

Here is very similar story of a Book of Mormon families experience...

Ether 1:41 states the Lords command to the people of the Brother of Jared to gather together "the seed of the earth of every kind"

...and then Ether 2: 3 states their follow through with the commandment...

"And they did also carry with them deseret, which, by interpretation, is a honey bee; and thus they did carry with them swarms of bees, and all manner of that which was upon the face of the land, seeds of every kind."

Ether 6:13 states that "they went forth upon the face of the land and began to till the earth"

To summarize this families experience...their family was told to gather provisions...and to flee a wicked homeland to ultimately board a ship...separated from the outside subsist upon food they had stored and other provisions for the space of 344 days...just under a year...until circumstances were such that they were able to come out and plant their seeds of every kind and eat their planted food as opposed to the now depleted food supply they had been surviving on.

Sound familiar!? Basically the same experience.

Now read 2 Ne. 5: 11, which covers a different time and place...

"And the Lord was with us; and we did prosper exceedingly; for we did sow seed, and we did reap again in abundance. And we began to raise flocks, and herds, and animals of every kind."

Here...during a time of political/civil unrest...a people separate from a wicked people and flee to another land seeking safety...they till and plant and have success.

Now read Mosiah 9:9...

"And we began to till the ground, yea, even with all manner of seeds, with seeds of corn, and of wheat, and of barley, and with neas, and with sheum, and with seeds of all manner of fruits; and we did begin to multiply and prosper in the land."

Here...during a time of political/civil unrest...a people separate from a wicked people and flee to another land seeking safety...they till and plant and have success.

Basically the same story!!! The repetition should rivet our attention...and make us ask questions like..."Why did the authors of the Book of Mormon include these stories with such similar details?" "Could they have seen events in our future that they hoped to help us prepare for by repeating very similar hopes that we would follow their example?"

Often I hear people explain applications of scriptures...only figuratively. For example in this instance they might say "This teaches me that our families need to stick together when we are going on the journey of life...and we need to supply ourselves with the provisions of gospel truth...and separate ourselves from bad things by turning off bad TV shows...and we need to work together to plant the seeds of our faith so that they will grow and we will have the fruit of happiness". While this is may be true...I think that literal applications of the Book of Mormon are often not made.

A literal view of these scriptures would give you the message that there may actually be a day when the Lord warns you to leave your home to escape from a wicked place...separating yourselves from the wicked. You may have to gather whatever provisions you have to to survive. You may have travel a great distance...and live for a time on whatever you have stored. Then you could find yourself like all of these 4 examples...with a piece of land...and a packet of seeds...earning your food by the sweat of your brow...that is of course...if you had the foresight to store them!!! Are you ready to go!!!???

Seed Storing

A couple of years ago I found a box out in the garage that had 10 or so packets of seed. Common varieties of carrots, squash, cucumber, tomatoes, and corn. The dates varied on each packet...but I don't think a single packet was less than a decade old. To my knowledge...they spent their entire life in a hot garage with no real protection from the elements. Just as an experiment I planted those seeds...and to my surprise...up came the carrots and corn!!

While that may seem is dwarfed by the work of Soren Odum...who was able to sprout seeds that were 1.700 years old!! The average gardener should not expect the same least not without the aid of some incredible science!!

The prophet Ezra Taft Benson told us...

"Store seeds and have sufficient tools on hand to do the job."

So how do we do that effectively?

It is widely understood that with the passing of time the germination rate of seed goes progressively down. Not all seed will store for the same length of time either. The germination rate can be monumentally improved if the seed is stored properly. "Properly" basically means to limit the amount of sunlight, moisture, and heat the seeds are exposed to. A constant temperature is also ideal as well.

There are different ideas about how best to accomplish this. I agree with Carole B. Turner who wrote"Seed Sowing and Saving" and Suzanne Ashworth who wrote "Seed to Seed". Put your seeds in ziploc bags...envelopes....or a variety of other containers and then to put it into a jar with a sealable a canning jar or a baby food jar. Then take that jar and put it in a cool dark place. Personally my cool dark place is my outside refrigerator. I would not recommend putting seed in the freezer as you may destroy the seed if the moisture content in the seed is too high.

Canned Seed for Long Term Storage?

There are companies selling cans of garden seed meant for "long term" storage. I think it is usually purchased with the thought that..." is my doomsday garden kit!"

While I don't think it is a necessarily a bad it get's people to have some seed on hand...and it is a can you could grab and flee with quickly...I have a few concerns about this approach.

1. Do the people that buy these cans also have short term seed that they are using now? Are they practicing the skills they will need to grow food? Like growing plants from seed as opposed to just going and buying seedlings?

2. Will the people who buy these cans let decades pass without rotating the seed...perhaps storing it out in their garage...(like so many people do with their food storage)...and when their hour of need comes...will they still germinate?

3. Are the prepacked vegetable seeds the varieties that grow well in the buyers region?

4. Are those the varieties that the buyers family likes to eat?"

Personally...I think don't think canned long term storage of seed is really necessary. I bet I can get my seeds to germinate just as effectively....that are kept in my cool dark the ones that are sealed in a can....even after the same amount of time. Rotating them doesn't require for me to break into my precious expensive can of seed either!!

Buying Seed

I'd encourage you to get online and type "heirloom seed" or "open pollinated seed" into a search engine. Find some suppliers and request their seed catalogs to come to your home. Many have them for free. In those catalogs you will find a wealth of information regarding the varieties they sell.

Here are some seed suppliers that I really like...

Peaceful Valley Farm and Garden Supply - The retail location is located in Grass Valley. It is the local "mecca" of organic gardening. They carry most everything. They have a large selection of open pollinated, organic fertilizers....etc...etc...and a helpful staff. They also do orders online and I'm sure over the phone.

Seeds of change has a great selection of organic open pollinated seed and a beautiful catalog. Their staff are super helpful...and will answer any question you've got. They have donated seed to my preschool in the past...and I have been really happy with the results.

Baker Creek has an unreal amount of heirloom varieties that I've seen nowhere else. Especially with regards to their tomato and melon collection. They also have many varieties that they have brought back from other countries. Their catalog makes everything look and sound so good!

Turtle Tree Seed is...I entirely local outfit. Various local farms and gardens supply the seed. Some friends at the Rudolf Steiner College in Fair Oaks supply with them with seed that is excellent. These are seeds that are adapted to 0ur region. I have eaten many a vegetable grown from this seed...yum.

Saving Seed

Learning to save seed from year to year can really be an art. Some varieties of vegetable require certain physical distances from other varieties that could compromise their "seed purity"...and other skills. Others are really tomatoes and many herbs.

There are many videos on youtube on saving seed. Here is one on saving tomato seed.

I would also recommend the books that I mentioned earlier "Seed to Seed" and "Seed Sowing and Saving". These books can walk you through step by step what to do with each variety. You might also check out the great work that is being done by organizations like the seed savers exchange.

Seed in Crisis

Heirloom varieties of all kinds of vegetables and flowers are disappearing. Many of these seeds have been passed down from generation to generation...but what happens when grandma can't find anyone interested in continuing the legacy?! The seeds get lost...and ultimately they die when she does. I have read that half of the seeds that existed earlier in our nations history are now extinct! That is not necessarily because they weren't good!

In addition...although there seems to be increased interest in heirloom seed...hybrid varieties have largely pushed them off of the shelves. Seed companies can make more money when they can count on you spending your money on their seed every year...instead of saving your own seed. Really...that is what has driven...what I consider to be the abomination of "terminator" technology. Seed that has been purposefully made to not produce a viable seed from the mother plant. Remember this..."He who controls the seed...controls the food." How do you think God feels about man taking his creation that by his command was made to produce in kind...and altering it so that it would not produce "meat" for man?!

Then there is the issue that comes with genetically modified plants. There is some really creepy and scary stuff going on out there.

Watch this documentary entitled "The Future of Food". It will surely get you interested in saving seed!!!!

My admonition to you is to get familiar with how to grow food in your region...grow heirloom varieties from seed....and learn how to save the seed for next years garden! You will truly find an increased sense of self reliance...a kinship with the Creator...and enjoy wonderful produce in the process!